After getting some of the easy quests out of the way (I don't think you can get this quest without doing some of the easier ones), you can go talk to Farkas who will tell you he's heard rumors about Dragons returning and wants to go see one for himself. Agree to go dragon hunting with him to get this quest to spawn.
Farkas will now join you as a follower and will tell you that he believes you can find a dragon at Shearpoint or another random location. Go outside and head to Shearpoint. It is on the mountain to the northeast of Whiterun so travel there or fast-travel there if you can.
The dragon will be on top of a Word Wall, so try to get in the first hit if you can. Take it down with Farkas and after the battle loot the beast, then be sure to get the Word Wall here for the Throw Voice power. Al three words are there. There's also a chest nearby you can loot. Beware the Dragon Priest that resides near the Word Wall at Shearpoint, he's one of the toughest out there.
Now, talk to Farkas and after the talk he'll opt to stay behind to remember the bones. Ok... either way, this quest is done. Oddly enough, you'll still gain 300 gold for completing it. Well done!