For the main part, all of the attacks are easy to dodge - there is only one you’ll ever notice. Occasionally, the head will shoot explosives out of its nose (they aren’t covered in mucus).
Just simply run randomly around the room to avoid this attack. Also, you may notice the trench around the edge of the room. This is electrified and will damage you 1/4 heart.
Now, for your offense. You’ll notice that you can lock-on to the hands for some odd reason - they have eyes! L-target the eyes and shoot them with arrows. Try not to shoot too fast, or those after the first may not hit. Two hits will disable a hand for a bit, and there are two hands. Disable both to begin the next phase. Gohdan’s head’s eyes will open.
Like with the hands, shoot arrows at them. It will take two arrows (maybe three?) to disable an eye, and there are two eyes. The head will then collapse to the ground, with its mouth. Go somewhat near the head and throw a Bomb at it to make it eat it like you did with the Armos Knights.
After you make Gohdan eat Bomb for the third time, his head will fall to the ground and a light will shine from behind it. Gohdan will tell that the path can now be opened, and to be cautious of what lies ahead. As Gohdan replaces himself in the wall, a complete Heart Container and another whirlwind will appear. Get the Heart Container and enter the light.
For once, you will not end up outside of the dungeon… Well, you sort of do. However, it is at the top of the Tower of the Gods. Climb up the nearby ladder and look up into the bell. Where the clapper should be, you’ll see a stick you can use the Grappling Hook on.
Do so and begin to swing to ring the bell, telling the gods that you have beaten the test put before you.