Gerudo Tower is located amongst a series of sheer cliffs. The easiest way to get there is by warping to the Gerudo Canyon Stable and then climbing up the cliffs to go north. Make your way west along the path and you will eventually find Gerudo Tower. If you find yourself caught inside of a sandstorm, you have gone too far. You can tell if you are in a sandstorm because your Sheikah Slate map will turn to static.
The Gerudo Tower itself is probably one of the oddest Towers in Hyrule. Its height is impossible to discern...it almost seems like its height is just infinite since we cannot even see to the bottom in this area. There is no way to climb up it from the bottom like we have done in the past.
In order to make the climb, you will need to find a high point to Paraglide from. Circling the Gerudo Tower is a long, winding path that you can run up. This will lead you to a higher area. Your goal is the little wooden pier-like structure poking out of the highest point in the cliffs. There is an enemy camp nearby so be careful. If you have access to Revali's Gale, you can just Paraglide and climb your way directly up without having to go the roundabout path.
Once you have reached this wooden pier, you can safely Paraglide to the lowest platforms on the Gerudo Tower. Then, make the climb like normal.